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Seven other states have signed the Paris Agreement, but have not ratified it. Iran (1.66%), Turkey (1.04%) and Iraq (0.48%) are currently the top emitters among the 10 nations that have not yet ratified. The others account for a much smaller share of global emissions: Eritrea (0.01%), Libya (0.14%), South Sudan (0.24% with Sudan) and Yemen (0.07%). The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the UNFCCC (UNFCCC), which deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on. The agreement aims to address the global threat of climate change by maintaining a global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius this century and continuing efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. [1] However, in recent years, Saudi Arabia`s attitude towards climate change has shifted from systematic obstructionism to conditional acceptance. Indeed, according to the principle that all countries have «common but differentiated responsibilities», Saudi Arabia signed and ratified the Paris Climate Agreement on the eve of its entry into force on 4 November 2016. In September 2017, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology organized the Regional Outreach Event of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in Riyadh, during which plans for the scope and process of the sixth report were presented and the results of the fifth report were presented. Angola was the last country to ratify the climate agreement on 12 August 2020. Kyrgyzstan was ratified on 18 February and Lebanon on 5 February. Once ratified, the agreement will require governments to submit their emission reduction plans.

They will eventually have to do their part to keep global temperatures well below 2°C above the pre-industrial period and «make efforts» to limit them to 1.5°C. Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified it in 2020, meaning the agreement was formally approved by 190 out of 197 countries. On November 3, 2016, Saudi Arabia ratified the Paris Agreement and its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) became its NDC. The NDC aims to reduce up to 130 MtCO2e per year (132 MtCO2e in AR4 GPC) by 2030, through beneficial contributions to economic diversification and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2015). Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances that allow it to choose to provide funds. But it is still not possible to access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has said must change if Turkey is to ratify the agreement. The United States, which is still on the list of 187 people ratified by the UN, began the procedure to withdraw from the agreement in 2019 and will withdraw on November 4.

President Donald Trump doubts that greenhouse gas emissions are likely to cause dangerous amounts of global warming. International agreements are initially signed to signal their intention to comply, but they become binding only through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or another formal adoption. .

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